OCD is characterized by recurrent obsessive ruminations, images, or impulses and/or recurrent physical or mental rituals.
These obsessions are distressing and time-consuming, causing interference with social and occupational function.
Anxiety disorders result from the interaction of biopsychosocial factors, whereby genetic vulnerability interacts with situations, stress, or trauma to produce clinically significant syndromes.
Specific, simple, or isolated phobia is the excessive or unreasonable fear of (and restricted to) animals, objects, or specific situations (e.g., dentists, spiders, elevators, flying, seeing blood) .
Adult separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is characterized by fear or anxiety concerning separation from those to whom an individual is attached.
This includes excessive health-related behaviors and high levels of alarm about personal health status .
Each year in the United States, anxiety disorders (DSM-5 plus PTSD and OCD) impact approximately 40 million adults, or 18% of the population [4,5].
Safety signals are the people or objects used by patients with anxiety disorders to diminish distress in situations that elicit anxiety.
Safety signals maintain anxiety over time by preventing direct confrontation of feared stimuli in the absence of "safe" objects/people and by maintaining perceptions of risk/harm and coping inability.Anxiety disorders are characterized by states of chronic, excessive dread or fear of everyday situations.The fear and avoidance can be life-impairing and disabling.Situations or objects that evoke intense anxiety in patients with agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, or specific phobia are either avoided or endured with significant personal distress.Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive and inappropriate worrying that is persistent (lasting more than a few months) and not restricted to particular circumstances .Patient use of safety signals can interfere with therapy progress, especially exposure therapy, and are considered anti-therapeutic.